I did notice the frets have some heavy string "scratch" (pic). This is consistent with the first 9 frets. What I'm wondering is if I need a re-fret.
No you don't need a refret because of fret scratches. Someone did a fret level and didn't polish the frets properly. I would use 320 grit sandpaper, 400, 600, 800 and then finish up using 0000 steel wool. optionally use some rubbing compound at the end. they will shine up nicely and no more scratches
hisI've also had to raise the action a good bit but still getting buzz at the height in the pic. I don't have anything to measure with so this is the second pic.
Take the bridge out and use a level to check to see if the neck is straight. if there is too big of a bow you may need to tighten the truss rod. don't over tighten the truss rod. if the rod is all the way tight and there's still a bow your neck could be bent. there's a fix for that too, but won't go there unless you say that's the issue. also make sure the frets are level by using a fret rocker or any straight edge really like a credit card. i'm guessing they are given all scratches seems someone may have done a fret level. anyway, if you have high frets that could too be causing buzzing.
assuming you made necessary truss rod adjustments, the neck is straight and frets are level...put the bridge and restring. adjust the spring tension to make the bridge straight. set the bridge height to where you want it.
one other thing you could check before putting strings on etc, check to make sure the neck is sitting in the pocket straight. if not you might need to shim either there or under the nut if the buzzing is on the first few frets
just a few things to check. good luck